Selasa, 05 April 2011


Pollution may arise as a result of human activities or caused by natural (eg volcanic eruption, toxic gases). Environmental science typically discusses pollution caused by human activity, which can be prevented and controlled.

* Due to human activities, environmental pollution would occur. Environmental pollution can not be avoided.
* What can be done is to reduce pollution, pollution control, and increase awareness and community care for the environment so as not to pollute the environment.
* Substance or material that can lead to contamination of pollutants called
* The terms of a substance called a pollutant when its presence can cause harm to living beings. For example, carbon dioxide content of 0.033% in air beneficial to the plant, but when higher than 0.033% can give damaging effects.

A substance can be called a pollutant if:

1. In excess of normal.
2. Being on time is not right.
3. Being in the wrong place.

The nature of pollutants are:

1. Ruin for a while, but when it reacts with the substance does not damage the environment anymore.
2. Damaging in a long time.

Types of Environmental Pollution

1. Based on Place of Occurrence of occurrence, pollution can be divided into air pollution, water, and soil.

a. Air Pollution

* Air pollution caused by exhaust fumes, gases such as CO2 from burning, SO, SO2, CFC, CO, and smoke cigarettes.

1. CO2

The most prominent air pollution is increasing the levels of CO2 in the air. Carbon dioxide comes from the factory, machines that use fossil fuels (coal, petroleum), also from cars, ships, aircraft, and wood burning. Increased levels of CO2 in the air was not immediately converted into oxygen by plants because many forests are cut down worldwide. As described above, such cases can lead to the greenhouse effect.

2. CO

In the home environment may also result from pollution, for example, start the car in the garage is closed if the engine combustion process is incomplete, then the combustion process that produces CO (carbon monoxide) that came out to fill the room. This can endanger people in the garage. Also, turn on the AC when sleeping in the car in a closed state is also dangerous. CO from the exhaust gas leaks will get into the car, so it can cause in death.

3. CFC

Other hazardous air pollution is a gas khloro fluoro carbon (CFC abbreviated). CFC gas used as gas developers, for not acting, odorless, tasteless, and not berbahaya.Gas can be used for example to develop a foam (foam seats), to AC (Freon), cooling on ice cupboard, and hair spray (hair spray). CFC gas soaring to reach the stratosphere there is a layer of ozone gas (O3). This ozone layer is the protective earth from the influence of ultraviolet light. If tidakl no ozone layer, ultraviolet light radiation reaching the earth's surface, causing the death of organisms, plants become stunted, causing genetic mutations, menyebebkan skin cancer or cancer of the retina of the eye. When CFCs reach the ozone gas, reaction will occur between CFCs and ozone, so that the ozone layer "hole" is referred to as the "hole" of ozone. According to observations by spacecraft, the South Polar ozone hole emakin wide. Currently extent have exceeded three times the size of continental Europe Therefore the use of air conditioning should be limited.

4. SO, SO2

Sulfur oxides (SO, SO2) in air is also produced by burning fossil (oil, coal). These gases can react with nitrogen oxides and rain water, which causes water to acid rain. Then there was acid rain.
Acid rain resulted in plants and land animals die. Agricultural production declined. Iron and metal rust easily. Ancient buildings, such as temples, become quickly worn and damaged. Similarly, buildings and bridges.

5. Cigarette Smoke

Other air pollutants that are harmful to health is cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contains many pollutants that can cause chronic cough, lung cancer shoes, affect the fetus in the womb and various other health disorders.

Smokers can be differentiated into two active smokers and passive smokers.

Active smokers are those who smoke.

Passive smokers are those who do not smoke but inhale cigarette smoke in a room.

According to the study, passive smokers have a greater risk compared active smokers. So, smoking in the room with other people who do not smoke can damage the health of others.

As a result of air pollution caused by, among others:

1. Disruption of human health, such as cough and respiratory disease (bronchitis, emphysema, and possibly lung cancer).
2. Damage to buildings due to weathering, corrosion on metal, paint and color fading.
3. Tananam oertumbuhan disruption, such as yellowing of leaves or plants kerdilnya result of high concentrations of SO2 or acidic gases.
4. The occurrence of acid rain caused by nitrogen oxide pollution.

The existence of the greenhouse effect of events that could raise global temperatures as well as to change the pattern of Earth's climate and ice melt at the poles. When the ice melts the sea level will rise and it affects the ecological balance.

b. Water Pollution

Water pollution is the event the entry of substances, energy, elements, or other components into the water, causing water quality impaired. Impaired water quality is marked by changes in odor, taste, and color.

Judging from the origin of pollutants and sources of pollution, water pollution can be distinguished among others:

1. Agricultural Waste

Agricultural waste can contain pollutants insecticide or organic fertilizer.

Insecticides can be deadly river biota. If the biota of the river is not dead and then eaten by animals or humans who eat them will be poisoned.
To prevent this, try to choose narrow-spectrum insecticides (specifically kill the target animal) and can be decomposed by microbes and sprayed in accordance with the rules. Do not throw away the rest of the drug into a river. While organic fertilizers are soluble in water to fertilize the aquatic environment (eutrophication). Because the nutrient-rich water, algae and aquatic plants flourish (bloom). Such things would threaten the sustainability of the dam. dam will be fast and shallow water biota will die of it.

2. Household Waste

Liquid household waste which is a source of water pollution. Of liquid household waste can be found a variety of organic materials (eg, remaining vegetables, fish, rice, oil, fat, water, human waste) water-borne sewer / ditch, then follow the river flow. There is also inorganic materials such as plastics, aluminum, and bottles of water washed away. Rubbish piled, clog waterways, and cause flooding. Other pollutants from household waste is of biological contaminants in the form of germs, bacteria and fungi. Organic matter dissolved in water will experience decomposition and decay.

As a result, oxygen levels dropped in the water so that water biota will die. If contamination of organic matter increases, we can see reddish clustered Tubifex. This worm is an indication of biological (bioindicator) severity of contamination by organic materials from waste settlement. Towns, the water drains out the color black and strong smelling. Didalamair yangdemikian got no living organisms except for bacteria and fungi. Compared with industrial waste, household waste in urban areas in Indonesia reached 60% of all existing waste.

3. Industrial Waste

The existence of some industries that dispose of waste into the water. Kinds of pollutants produced depend on the type of industry. Perhaps the form of persistent organic pollutants (stink), inorganic pollutants (foamy, colored), or perhaps in the form of pollutants containing sulfuric acid (stink), or a temperature (the water
heat). The government set regulations to control water pollution by industrial waste. For example, industrial waste must be processed before it is discharged into the river to avoid contamination. At sea, often occur because of leakage of oil tanker collided with another ship. The oil spill is on the ship flooded the ocean in the distance hundreds of miles. Fish, coral reefs, sea birds, and many marine animals that die of it.

To overcome this, pollutants are limited by pipe float so as not to spread, then the surface pollutant substances that can be sprinkled with oil decipher.

4. Using poison Fishing

Some residents and fishermen there who use the tube (toxins from plants or potassium (poison) to catch fish catches, but also all the water biota. Toxin is not only the adult animals, but also animals that are still small. Thus the poison disseminated will destroy the type of living creature inside. fishing activity in this way resulted in a water environment pollution and reduce water resources.

a. Due to the dtimbulkan by water pollution, among others
b. Disruption of aquatic organisms due to reduced oxygen content.
c. Population explosion of algae and aquatic plants (eutrophication)
d. Silting of water.
e. Extinction of biota, water, such as fish, crab, shrimp, and aquatic insects.
f. The emergence of flooding due to clogged garbage.
g. Spreading epidemic diarrhea and vomiting.

c. Soil pollution

Pollution of groundwater is caused by household waste, market,
industrial, agricultural, and livestock. Waste can be destroyed by micro-organisms into mineral, gas, and water, forming humus. Garbage
that such leaves, organic, animal tissue, paper, and leather. Garbage
are classified as easily biodegradable waste. While inorganic waste such as iron, aluminum, glass, and synthetic materials such as plastic, hard or can not be parsed. Contaminants that will remain intact until about 300 years to come. Wrap the plastic that we throw into the environment will remain and may be found by our children and grandchildren after hundreds of years later. Instead, the waste will be disposed separated into two containers. First is the garbage decomposes, and can be discarded into a landfill or can be used as compost. When combined with the maintenance of composting earthworms, it will be obtained good results. earthworms can be sold for animal feed, while the soil compost can be sold for fertilizer. The process of recycling (recycle). The second is the garbage that is not biodegradable, it can be
re-utilized (penggunaulangan = reuse). For example, digunakanlagi cake tin cans for food containers, old jam jar used for the spices and syrup bottles used to store drinking water. Both recycling and penggunaulangan to prevent the occurrence of environmental pollution. Advantages, environmental burden is reduced. We know that pollution can not be eliminated. What we can do is to prevent or control its negative impacts. Besides penggunaulangan and recycling, there's more effort to prevent pollution, namely conducting material reduction / savings (reduce), and perform maintenance (repair). In developed countries, the slogans reuse, reduce, and repair, many circulated to the public.

Due to soil contamination caused by, among others

a. Disruption of living organisms (especially microorganisms in the soil).
b. The changing nature of the chemical or physical properties of soil that is not good for plant growth, and
c. Change and affect the ecological balance.

2. Based on Various Materials Pollution
According pencemarnya kinds of materials, pollution menjdi following distinguished,
Chemical pollution: CO2 heavy metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Ni,) raioaktif material,
pesticides, detergents, oils, inorganic fertilizers.
a. Pollution Biolagi: microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Entamoeba coli,
Salmonella thyposa.
b. Physical Pencemara: metal, cans, bottles, glass, plastic, rubber.
c. Sound pollution: noise. Sound Pollution (noise)
Towns or in areas near the industrial / factory frequent noise.
Sound pollution caused by the entry of noise above 50 decibels sound (abbreviated dB, is a measure of noise level). The sound is disturbing human health and peace. Noise causes the population to be difficult to sleep, it can even lead to deafness, psychiatric disorders, and can also cause heart disease, disorders of the fetus in the womb, and stressful.
When this has been attempted for the machines used in humans are not too
noisy. if the noise should be sought of insulators. leafy plant
lush backyard muffle the noise. For those who like to listen to the frenetic music, should listen in a specific place (eg in the room) so as not to disturb others.

3. Based on Pollution Levels
According to the level of pollution, contamination can be divided into as follows.
a. Light pollution, the pollution that started causing disturbance
other ecosystems. Examples of gas pollution of motor vehicles.
b. Chronic pollution, the pollution that cause chronic disease.
Examples of pollution Minamata, Japan.
c. Acute pollution, ie pollution that can kill instantly.
Examples of CO from exhaust gas pollution that caused him to die in a car
closed, and radioactive contamination.

Parameter Environmental Pollution
To measure the pollution level is used where the parameters diasuatu
pollution. Parameterpencemaran used as an indicator (guide) the occurrence of pollution and pollution levels that have occurred Paarameter pollution include physical parameters, chemical parameters and biological parameters.

1. Physical Parameters

Physical parameters include the measurement of color, taste, smell, temperature, turbidity, and

2. Parameters

Chemical parameters carried out to determine the levels of CO2, pH, acidity, concentration
metal, and heavy metals. The following example disajukan pH measurement of water, levels
CO2, and dissolved oxygen.

a. Water pH Measurement
The river water in natural conditions have not been polluted stretch of pH 6.5
- 8.5. Because of pollution, the pH of the water can be lower than 6.5 or more
higher than 8.5. Organic materials usually leads to the condition of the water
more acidic. Kapurmenyebabkan water becomes alkaline conditions (alkaline). so, changes in pH
water depends on the kinds of materials pencemarnya. Changes in pH value has
significance for aquatic life. Value of low pH (very acidic) or high
(Very alkaline) is not suitable for most living organisms. For each
one unit change in pH scale (from 7 to 6 or from 5 to 4) is said to acidity rose 10
times. If the opposite occurs, the acidity down 10 times. Water acidity can be measured
with a simple litmus paper that is by dipping into the water to elihat
change the color.
b. Measurement of CO2 Concentration
CO2 gas can also dissolve into the water. Levels of dissolved CO2 gas is strongly influenced
by temperature, pH, and many organismeyang live in the water. More
organisms in the water, the higher levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (except if
in the water there are water plants that photosynthesize). Levels of CO gas can be measured
by titrimetry.
c. Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen Levels
Levels of dissolved oxygen in natural waters range from 5-7 ppm (part per million
or one per sejita; 1ml of oxygen dissolved in 1 liter of water is said to have high levels
1 ppm oxygen). Decrease in dissolved oxygen levels can be caused by three things:
1. Oxidation process (demolition) of organic materials.
2. Reduction process by the substances produced by anaerobic baktri of bottom waters.
3. Orgaisme respiratory process that lives in water, especially at night.

Water pollution (mainly caused by organic pollutants) to
reduce the supply of dissolved oxygen. this will threaten the lives
organisms that live in the water. The more polluted, increasing oxygen levels terlerut
smaller. To be able to measure dissolved oxygen, made by the method
Winkler. Chemical parameters are done through the activities of respiratory microorganisms
known as biochemical parameters. example is the measurement of BOD COD dab.

C. Impact of Environmental Pollution

1. Species Extinction
As described, pollutants hazardous to water and terrestrial biota. Various types of animal poisoning mengelami, then die. Various species of animals have immunity that is not the same. There are sensitive, some are resistant. Young animals, the larvae are animals that are sensitive to pollutants. There are animals that can adapt so immune to contaminants., Adpula who do not. Although the animals to adapt, should note that the level of adaptation of animals there are limits. When the limit is terlampui, these animals will die.

2. Blasting Pests

The use of insecticides can also kill predators. Because the predators become extinct,
the insect pest will grow without control.

3. Environmental Balance Disorders
Extinction of certain spasies can mengibah interaction patterns in an ecosystem. food chains, food webs and energy lairan menjadiberubah. As a result, the balance lingkngan disturbed. Recycled materials and biogeochemical cycles become disturbed.

4. Reduced Soil Fertility

The use of deadly insecticides soil fauna. This could reduce soil fertility. Continuous use of fertilizer can cause the soil to be acidic. It also can reduce soil fertility. Likewise, the occurrence of acid rain.

5. Toxicity and Disease

People who consume vegetables, fish, and contaminated food can
suffered poisoning. someone dies, there is a damaged liver, kidney, cancer, nervous system damage, and even
cause defects in the offspring-offspring.

6. Biological concentration

The process of elevated levels of contaminants through the body of beings known as
biological concentration.

7. Establishment of the Ozone Hole and the Greenhouse Effect

The formation of ozone hole and the greenhouse effect is
global problem that is felt by all of mankind this is due to
because pollutants can spread and cause effects elsewhere.

Efforts to Prevent Environmental Pollution

1. Putting the industrial area or plant away from residential areas or
2. Disposal of industrial wastes regulated so as not to pollute the environment or
3. The monitoring of the use of the types of pesticides and other chemicals
can cause environmental pollution.
4. Extending the green movement.
5. Stern action against perpetrators of environmental pollution.
6. Provide awareness of communities about the meaning of the environment so that human beings more loving environment.


Pollutants enter the environment through food chains and food webs. Toxic materials are discharged into the waters to seep into the body of algae. Furthermore, algae are eaten by small shrimp. Small shrimp eaten by large fish. And if the fish is caught and then eaten by humans, then the contaminants will get into the human body.
Typically, pollutants that enter the waters have a small degree. This is because the contaminants it has suffered dilution. If the pollutant is absorbed by the body of the algae, then the levels have risen hundreds and even thousands of times. Even contaminants in the water that only 0.00007 ppm, in the body of algae dept be 0.007 ppm. Because of the small shrimp-consuming not just one but many algal cell algae cells, the small shrimp in the body levels of pollutants may be 0.7 ppm. In the body of fish, pollutant levels were increased to 25 ppm. In the body of people who often eat fish, levels of pollutants will increase to 75 ppm. The process of elevated levels of contaminants through the living body is known as biological concentration.

Effects Of Air Pollution And Health

Water pollution is now very apprehensive. Many of us do not realize that, waste from households, factories, and industrial water pollution has been donated. Waste originating from households, among others, originate from detergents, food trash, etc.. The most severe is the waste from factories and industry. If not processed first, very bad impact on the water. Many cases of water pollution that could result in poisoning to death.

Of agriculture can also cause water pollution, for example, is the excessive use of chemical drugs. Pesticides, herbicides and fungicides will dissolve into the water and causing water pollution. By knowing the negative effects of agricultural chemicals, the pollution can be reduced. Water hygiene conditions aggravated by the depletion of the plant. The function of the plant is able to retain water and absorb toxins from the water.

In general, water contaminants can be classified into 3 types of biological, chemical and physical. Pollution is a very big impact on health. We often hear news of poisoning and death due to this polluted water. The most mild effect is a skin disease. Another symptom is a disorder of the kidney, cancer, central nervous etc.. Here are a variety of water pollutants and their effects on health.

Biological: bacteria and viruses
Health effects: nausea, vomiting, dizziness and indigestion

Chemical: factory waste, toxic pesticides, toxic herbicides, sap, detergent
Health effects: kidney disease, central nervous system disorders, cancer, hepatitis, damage to red blood cells, urine disposal problems, disruption of digestion and metabolism system

Physical: asbestos, plastic, cans, organic waste, iron
Health effects: cancer, skin disease (tinea versicolor, ringworm, itching, boils, etc.), poisoning, central nervous system disorders, kidney and metabolic systems

It is very dangerous if we do not realize the dangers of water pollutants. It is time we pay attention to water pollutants with the best water treatment system is reverse osmosis or reverse osmosis system. The advantages of the system is mempu reverese osmosis removes all contaminates the water. Let's improve our health by drinking water consumption of both products of reverse osmosis reverse osmosis reverse osmosis domestic or commercial or industrial reverse osmosis.


Air Pollution

Air pollution is the presence of one or more physical substance, chemical, or biological in the atmosphere in the amount that could endanger the health of living things, disrupt the aesthetics and comfort, or damage property.

Air pollution is the entry, or a mixture of dangerous elements into the atmosphere which could cause environmental damage, disruption to human health in general as well as reduced environmental quality.

Classification of Air Pollutants:

1. Primary pollutants: pollutant in caused directly from the source of air pollution.

2. Secondary pollutant: pollutant-pollutant formed from reactions of primary pollutants in the atmosphere.
Example: Sulfur dioxide, sulfur monoxide and water vapor to produce sulfuric acid.
Types of Pollutants:

- Carbon monoxide (CO)
- Nitrogen dioxide (N02)
- Sulfur Dioxide (S02)
- CFCs
- Carbon dioxide (CO2)
- Ozone (03)
- Objects Particulate (PM)
- Lead (Pb)
- hydrocarbons (HC)

Main Causes of Air Pollution:

In the big cities are very difficult to get fresh air, an estimated 70% of the pollution that occurs is a result of motor vehicle.
Example: in Jakarta between the years 1993-1997 an increase in the number of vehicles in the form:
- Motorcycle 207%
- 177% passenger cars
- Car goods 176%
- Bus 138%
Impact of Air Pollution:

- Ozone Depletion
- Global Warming (Global Warming)
- Respiratory disease, eg heart, lungs and throat
- Disruptions reproductive function
- Stress and decreased levels of productivity
- Health and decline in mental abilities of children
- Decrease the level of intelligence (IQ) of children.


+ Clean Air Act made ​​by the government and increase taxes for industries that do air pollution.
+ To develop environmentally friendly technology and renewable such as Fuel Cell and Solar Cell.
+ Saving Energy used.
+ Maintain cleanliness of the neighborhood.

Air Pollution

Every day, the average person inhales about 20,000 liters of air. Every time we breathe, we risk inhaling dangerous chemicals that have found their way into the air.

Air pollution includes all contaminants found in the atmosphere. These dangerous substances can be either in the form of gases or particles.

Air pollution can be found both outdoors and indoors. Pollutants can be trapped inside buildings, causing indoor pollution that lasts for a long time.

The sources of air pollution are both natural and human-based. As one might expect, humans have been producing increasing amounts of pollution as time has progressed, and they now account for the majority of pollutants released into the air.

Air pollution has been a problem throughout history. Even in Ancient Rome people complained about smoke put into the atmosphere.

The effects of air pollution are diverse and numerous. Air pollution can have serious consequences for the health of human beings, and also severely affects natural ecosystems.

Because it is located in the atmosphere, air pollution is able to travel easily. As a result, air pollution is a global problem and has been the subject of global cooperation and conflict.

Some areas now suffer more than others from air pollution. Cities with large numbers of automobiles or those that use great quantities of coal often suffer most severely from problems of air pollution.



Bioremediation is an innovative wastewater treatment technology, which can become an alternative technology in dealing with pollution caused by mining activities in Indonesia. This bioremediation technique of handling the waste or the recovery environment, with relatively low operating costs, as well as friendly and safe for the environment.
Bioremediation is the process of cleaning the soil contamination using microorganisms (fungi, bacteria). Bioremediation aims to break down or degrade contaminants into less toxic substances or toxic (carbon dioxide and water).
There are two types of bioremediation, the in-situ (or on-site) and ex-situ (or off-site). Cleaning is a cleaning on-site at the location. This cleaning is cheaper and easier, consisting of cleaning, venting (injection), and bioremediation. While ex-situ bioremediation or cleaning the off-side is done by way of contaminated soil excavated and moved into a shelter that is more controllable, then given special treatment by using microbes. Ex-situ bioremediation can take place more quickly, capable of remediation of contaminants and soil types are more diverse, and more easily controlled than in-situ bioremediation.
There are 4 basic techniques commonly used Dlm bioremediation:
1. stimulation activity of indigenous microorganisms (at contaminated sites) with the addition of nutrients, regulation of redox conditions, pH optimum, etc.
2. inoculation (planting) at the site contaminated with microorganisms, ie microorganisms that have the ability to special biotransformation
3. application of immobilized enzymes
4. the use of plants (phytoremediation) to remove or alter pollutants.
Ex-situ bioremediation involves excavation of contaminated soil and then taken to a safe area. After that the area is safe, the land is cleansed of contaminants. The trick is, the soil is stored in the tub / tank is impermeable, then cleaning agent is pumped into the tub / tank. Furthermore pollutants pumped out of the tub is then processed by the installation of waste water processing. The weakness of ex-situ bioremediation is much more expensive and complicated. Meanwhile, among other advantages can process faster and easier to control, capable meremediasi type of contaminant and soil type are more diverse.
Bioremediation process must consider include soil temperature, soil acidity, soil moisture, nature and geological structure of the soil layer, the location of the sources of pollution, water availability, nutrients (N, P, K), the ratio C: N of less than 30:1, and oxygen availability.

- The process of bioremediation

Examples of bioremediation for oil polluted environment. The first do is to activate the natural bacterial decomposition of petroleum in the soil that suffered pollution. These bacteria will then describe the waste oil that has been conditioned in such a way that according to the needs of living bacteria. In a short amount of time the oil content will be reduced and eventually lost, this is called bioremediation system.